This section details additional material that, although not formally part of the ASEMS, together with some of the tools defined in the Safety Managers Toolkit will help in understanding systems safety and environmental management in general with specific reference to the UK MOD acquisition process.
The MOD issues 2 booklets as introductions to environmental and safety management in defence sector acquisition.
Known colloquially as the Green and White books they provide good awareness of the topics and guidance issued as part of the ASEMS.
The environmental performance of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) is determined to a significant extent by the nature of the equipment and materiel that it procures. Exercising effective control of equipment specification, design, through-life management and disposal throughout the acquisition process in order to minimise and mitigate any environmental impacts arising from the MOD's activities is therefore fundamental to MOD acquisition activities.
This booklet introduces the concepts, terms and activities of effective environmental management that are mandated within the MOD equipment acquisition process. It is intended to enable Project Teams and other MOD staff, especially those in Front Line Command and Operating Centres, to understand the main environmental issues and essential methodologies to control, minimise and mitigate environmental impacts arising from the MOD's procurement decisions and equipment through-life management.
This booklet also introduces and supports the Project Oriented Environmental Management System (POEMS) mandated for use by all Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S) Project Teams to establish their EMS and undertake equipment environmental impact assessments.
Many of the tasks which MOD undertakes would be considered inherently dangerous in the non-military environment, with increasingly complex systems employed in sometimes hostile environments. In order to ensure the safety of MOD employees and others affected by its activities, it is essential that safety is robustly managed; there must be a clear understanding of all associated risks, continuous vigilance to identify emergent issues and effective processes to manage the risks in an enduring manner. Through the adoption of such an approach, MOD builds on a history of generally good safety practice, supplemented with good practice from other organisations, to ensure that safety is successfully managed and continuously improved in all areas of its responsibility.
The management of safety applies throughout the life of a project, from Concept through to Disposal. Safety risks must be considered both for peacetime and for conflict, although higher risks may be considered tolerable in times of war
This booklet is an introduction to system safety management concepts, terms and activities. It is intended to allow MOD and contractor personnel to understand quickly how safety issues affect them. The contents of this booklet are intended for information and must therefore not be used as the basis for any contract or instruction to contractors
ASEMS Part 1 is supported by a series of S&EP Leaflets. The S&EP Leaflets represent a short-term mechanism for quickly promulgating essential policy and guidance updates.
The documents listed here are available as pdf downloads and are identical to the Acquisition Systems Guidance (ASG) versions; however several of the leaflets have been included in the General Management Procedures (GMP) and are hyperlinked to these documents instead.
See below for details on extant and superseded leaflets.
SEP Leaflet 01/2010: Project Team Process for Reporting & Monitoring Significant Equipment Safety Failures or Environmental Incidents
This document outlines internal Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S)policy and procedures for Project Teams (PTs) to report and maintain records of significant occurrences and faults relating to the equipment for which they have safety management responsibilities. It also describes PTs’ responsibilities for learning lessons from accidents and incidents, identifying trends, and promulgating information which may have relevance to other areas. PTs should note that the processes described below shall be applied in addition to, and not in lieu of, the Hazard Log identification and investigation process applicable to all incidents and equipment hazards.
This document has been incorporated into GMP01 S&EP Leaflet 01/2010 Project Team Process for Reporting & Monitoring Significant Equipment Safety Failures or Environmental Incidents
SEP Leaflet 02/2011: ALARP in a Military Equipment Capability Context
The Secretary of State for Defence requires the MOD to implement policy which aligns with statute by reducing safety risk ‘so far as is reasonably practicable’. JSP 815 interprets this requirement to ‘as low as reasonably practicable’ (ALARP). This guidance clarifies existing MOD guidance on ALARP and assists those managing safety risk by providing a process for first achieving reduction of risk to ALARP, and subsequently progressively reducing any residual risk, ie maintaining risk at any moment in time to ALARP.
This document has been incorporated into GMP02. S&EP Leaflet 02/2011: ALARP in a Military Equipment Capability Context
SEP Leaflet 03/2011: Equipment Safety and Environmental Protection (SEP) Risk Referral
This document provides guidance to DE&S about the management of SEP risks from equipment, which DE&S assesses as very high. It describes a means of communicating such risks within DE&S and, when beyond the level at which DE&S has authority to decide action, transferring the decision to the relevant Duty Holder in the Front Line Commands (FLCs) including PJHQ. The management of risk within the user’s area of responsibility will ultimately be governed by the user’s management system; this guidance presents DE&S understanding of how communication would flow therefore it indicates the potential interaction between DE&S and the user Duty Holder chain.
This document has been incorporated into GMP04. S&EP Leaflet 03/2011: Equipment Safety and Environmental Protection (SEP) Risk Referral
SEP Leaflet 06/2013: Noise Measurement to Facilitate Assessment of Exposure and Selection of Hearing Protection
Issue 1 of this leaflet delivered protocols that were to be implemented throughout DE&S for the measurement of impulse noise to facilitate assessment of noise exposure in compliance with the Control of Noise at Work Regulations (CNAWR), Control of Noise at Work (Northern Ireland) Regulations (CNAW (NI)R) and the Merchant Shipping and Fishing Vessels (Control of Noise at Work) Regulations (MSFV(CNAR)R)).
SEP Leaflet 07/2013: Management of Hazardous Substances and Restricted Materials
This document provides internal processes and procedures for the through-life management of Hazardous Substances (HS) and Restricted Materials (RM)1 . It describes a means of managing HS/RM in compliance with the SoS Policy (Reference A, and Reference B, C and D and the DE&S O&A Statement (Reference E). For the purpose of this document HS/RM are defined as:
- A Hazardous Substance is any substance or preparation which is very toxic, toxic, harmful, corrosive or irritant or has a Workplace Exposure Limit (WEL) or any other substance that creates a risk to health because of its properties and the way it is used or is present in the workplace.
- A Restricted Material is one that is banned or controlled by legislation but is still permitted for specific uses.
SEP Leaflet 08/2013: Safety Management Guidance for Software Only Projects
Reference A contains the mandated DE&S Project Oriented Safety Management System (POSMS) that provides the framework for managing safety at all stages of acquisition. The Safety Management System (SMS) is needed to show that all necessary safety activities have been, and will continue to be, undertaken to an adequate standard throughout the life of the project. A Safety Case contains a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence that provides a compelling, comprehensible and valid case that a system is safe for a given application in a given operating environment. Safe does not imply that there is an absence of risk, but that the risk can be demonstrably reduced to a level that is Broadly Acceptable, or at least Tolerable and As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP).
The leaflet in PDF format contains 2 annexes:
- A questionnaire to determine the benign (or otherwise) nature of the software and
- A template for a simple Safety Statement for software deemed benign.
Because these 2 documents are required in word document they are enclosed below. Additionally a 3rd document, a variant of the questionnaire designed for Information Software and Support including guidance for completion.
SEP Leaflet 09/2015 Version 2.1: DE&S’s Contribution to Mitigating Risk to Life (RtL) across MOD
This SE&P Leaflet sets out DE&S’s contribution to the mitigation of Risks to Life (RtL) across MOD. It covers the principles underpinning the role of Duty Holders within DE&S; the responsibilities and accountabilities on DE&S to provide safe equipment; and DE&S’s support to Duty Holders in the Front Line Commands (FLCs).
This document has been incorporated into GMP09. S&EP Leaflet 09/2015: DE&S Contribution to Mitigating Risks to Life (RtL) Across MOD
S&EP Leaflet 10/2017 System Safety and Environmental Protection Comptence Mapping
This document defines a process for assessing and mapping levels of generic system safety and environmental protection competence for staff assigned responsibilities in these areas. The process is based around a series of generic S&E Competence Maps. These describe the typical activities which staff may be assigned to undertake and the level of S&E competence the assignee shall be expected to demonstrate. The S&E Competence Maps supplement, and are to be read in conjunction with, the Role Profiles for Acquisition Safety and Environmental Protection published by the DE&S Engineering Function which shall always take precedence. This document has been incorporated into GMP03. S&EP Leaflet 10/2017: Competence Mapping.
S&EP Leaflet 011/2017 - Acquisition Safety Delegations in DE&S
This leaflet sets out the principles to be followed for the delegation of acquisition safety authority in DE&S in a balanced matrix organization. The principles are to be adopted with immediate effect. The DE&S Safety Committee has decided that in a Balanced Matrix acquisition safety delegations in DE&S will continue to be vested in delivery Team Leaders (TLs) irrespective of function where;
- The TL is a Suitably Qualified & Experienced Person (SQEP) to hold such a delegation and;
- The TL has the capacity to discharge his or her delegated authority effectively.
SEP Leaflet 04/2011: - Superseded by S&EP Leaflet 10/2017
SEP Leaflet 05/2012: – Superseded by S&EP Leaflet 09/2015
SEP Leaflet 09/2015: - Superseded by SEP Leaflet 09/2015 Version 2.1 (Dated 07 April 2017)
These Bulletins are intended to provide DE&S staff with essential and important updates to Safety and Environment related policy and information. They are produced by the QS&EP team, and endorsed by DES TECH-QSEP SEP-DepHd
SEB 001 - Introduction of the Safety & Environmental Protection Bulletin System
The DE&S Safety and Environment Bulletin (SEB) system has been established to provide a mechanism for promulgating short term notices throughout the Safety and Environmental Protection function.
SEB/001 announces the introduction of the SEB system and provides a brief description of how it will operate
SEB 003 - Safety Critical and Safety Enabling Post Definitions
Within DE&S, the terms Safety Critical (SC) and Safety Enabling (SE) have been adopted, which highlight the responsibilities of System Safety Management posts. In broad terms, staff in Safety Critical posts are responsible for undertaking key safety-related functions, functions which would cease if the posts are not filled. Safety enablers are the deep subject matter experts who provide essential support, allowing those decisions to be made efficiently, effectively and competently. The importance of ensuring these posts are filled by competent individuals is recognised at the most senior level. A target of reducing the number of vacant Safety Critical posts across the whole of DE&S to no more than 50 has been set by CDM, with progress reports being provided on a regular basis.
SEB 006 - DE&S’s Contribution to Mitigating Risks to Life (RtL) across MOD (replacing Leaflet 05/2012)
It is Departmental policy that those responsible and accountable for activities that have the potential to pose RtL be identified as Duty Holders and appointed formally as such through Letters of Delegation (LoD). Across MOD, Duty Holders are responsible and accountable for the safe operation of systems, facilities and activities in their areas of responsibility. By controlling RtL and reducing them to Broadly Acceptable or Tolerable & As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP), MOD Duty Holders ensure that all persons to whom MOD owes a common law and statutory duty of care are protected
SEB 007 - JSP 515 Hazardous Stores Information System (HSIS)
The JSP 515 Hazardous Substances Information System (HSIS) Support Team are not being supplied timely, and/or suitable safety and environmental information for items entering the MOD supply chain for scrutiny and upload to the JSP 515 HSIS database
SEB 009 - Convening of Service Inquiries
On the 1st April 2015, authority for convening all Service Inquiries (SIs) was formally vested in the Defence Safety Authority (DSA). Consequently, with immediate effect, DE&S relinquishes its Convening Authority role. Full details are published in DSA Standard Operating Procedure SOP 1
SEB 010 - Managing Driver Behaviour in White Fleet Vehicles
On the 21st April 2016, DE&S published QS&EP Group Policy Memo 01/2016 to define the process for addressing inappropriate and dangerous driver behaviour. This Policy applies to all DE&S Users of White Fleet Vehicles in accordance with procedures detailed in 2013DIN04-63.
SEB 011 - Withdrawal of HazMat tool from DE&S
The MOD Hazardous Materials Database (HazMat) is an RLI hosted application used to manage an inventory of platforms, equipment and components and to identify hazardous materials such as asbestos, halon and radioactive components that are present in these. This tool also facilitates the reporting of such substances and their elimination from the equipment programme.
SEB 012 - Service Inquest into fatalities at Camp Bastion
In July 2014, Defence Fire Risk Management Organisation (DFRMO) published “Regulation 28 Report following the inquest into two service personnel on 14 February 2011 - Camp Bastion” to ensure that Duty Holders are aware of the concerns raised by her Majesty’s Coroner following a fire that resulted in the deaths of two Service personnel and the required actions to prevent further fatalities
SEB 013 - Guidance on the Procurement of Independent Safety Auditor Services
The guidance examines the role of the Independent Safety Auditor and the aspects to be considered in the procurement process:
- How to select Independent Safety Auditors;
- Scoping work for Independent Safety Auditors at different lifecycle phases;
- Assessing proposals for Independent Safety Auditors; and
- Guidance on the production of contracting documents, and factors to be considered when assessing the outputs of the Independent Safety Auditor
SEB 014 - Update to S&EP Leaflet 03/2011 – Equipment Safety and Environmental Protection Risk Referral
- QSEP have recently updated S&EP leaflet 03/2011, Equipment Safety & Environmental Protection Risk Referral also held as GMP04. S&EP Leaflet 03/2011: Equipment Safety and Environmental Protection (SEP) Risk Referral
- The updated leaflet addresses a number of issues, in particular:
- The scope has been expanded to encompass the referral of environmental risks,
- Ability to use the referral process for non-Class A risks has been clarified,
- Minor updates have been introduced to reflect organisational changes which have occurred since the leaflet was originally issued in 2011.
- The revised leaflet will shortly be published on the ASG.
SEB 015 - Update to S&EP Leaflet 09/2015 – DE&S’s Contribution to Mitigating Risk to Life Across MOD
- QSEP have recently updated S&EP leaflet 09/2015, DE&S Contribution to Mitigating Risk to Life Across MOD also held as GMP09: DE&S Contribution to Mitigating Risks to Life (RtL) Across MOD
- The updated leaflet addresses a number of issues, in particular:
- Restatement of the ten MOD-level principles for Duty Holding
- Delegation of Duty Holding responsibilities to non-MOD personnel
- Clarification of the relationship between Duty Holding and duty of care responsibilities
- An update to the list of DE&S Operating and Delivery Duty Holders to reflect changes with the organisation.
SEB 016 - S&EP Leaflet 10/2017 System Safety & Engineering Protection Competence Mapping
- This SEB announces the publication of S&EP Leaflet 10/2017 – Competence Mapping. The leaflets contains a series of Competence Maps, each of which defines levels of generic (SQEP 1) System Safety and Environmental Protection competence that apply to staff with responsibilities in those two areas. The leaflet supersedes S&EP Leaflet 04/2011 (Role Profiles). The Competence Maps are designed to complement the Role Profiles published by the Engineering Function and provide an additional level of detail to help in their consistent application.
SEB017 - S&EP Leaflet 11/2017 Acquisition Delegations in DE&S
This SEB announces the publication of S&EP Leaflet 11/2017. The leaflet sets out the principles for delegating acquisition safety authority in a balanced matrix organisation and introduces the concept of a multi-function assignment within the Engineering function.
SEB 018 - Update to S&EP Leaflet 09/2015 – DE&S’s Contribution to Mitigating Risk to Life Across MOD
This SEB announces the publication of an update to S&EP Leaflet 09/2015 (DE&S’s Contribution to Mitigating Risk to Life Across MOD).
The below SEB is no longer extant. The archived version is kept below for information
SEB 002 - DE&S Special Bonus Scheme - Payment for Personal & Professional Activity in Safety and Environmental Protection
The Special Bonus Scheme (SBS) exists to reward exceptional performance by eligible civilian staff in an extraordinary task or exercise. MOD Personnel Instruction 124/99 announced the extension of the Scheme to allow for the recognition of significant personal development achievement such as the attainment of a professional or educational qualification of national standing.
Following the release of version 2 of Engineering Instruction No.3 detailing the Special Bonus Scheme (SBS) for personal and professional development in Acquisition Safety, SEB002 will now detail Acquisition Environmental Protection SBS, only. The figure for achieving Environmental Practitioner status has been updated, and is now £400, in alignment with the System Safety Practitioner.
The SEB below is no longer extant. The archived version is kept below for information
SEB 004 - Revision of S&EP Policy Leaflet 04/2011
S&EP Leaflet 04/2011 (System Safety & Environmental Role Profiles) defines a series of seven generic safety and environmental roles against which any member of the DE&S acquisition community can be mapped. The process initially requires users to identify which role is most appropriate for a nominated post. This will identify acquisition safety and environmental protection related competence requirements, in the form of training and experience, that the post-holder must demonstrate. The second part of the mapping process is to record how the post-holder satisfies these requirements and, if necessary, how any shortcomings will be managed.
The below SEB is no longer extant. The archived version is kept below for information
SEB 005 - DE&S ASSERT OHSE Reporting, replacing the manual DE&S Incident Notification Cell (DINC) process
Within DE&S, ASSERT is being promoted as the preferred corporate tool for reporting on Safety and Environmental management by the QSEP team. It allows analysis and reports to be automatically generated for the various management levels up to and including CDM. As part of the expansion of the ASSERT system it was identified that there was an organisation requirement to develop an on-line reporting tool which would allow individuals at all levels to report incidents relating to OHSE and for Operating Centres (OC's) to view and report on incidents within their areas of responsibility.
The below SEB is no longer extant. The archived version is kept below for information
SEB 008 - Defence Standards 00-56, 00-55, and 00-27
This SEB has been produced to keep staff informed of the changes to S&E Defence Standards and contains information on the review and publication of:
- Def Stan 00-56 Part 1 Issue 6, Safety Management Requirements for Defence Systems.
- Def Stan 00-55 Part 1 Interim Issue 3, Requirements for Safety of Programmable Elements in Defence Systems.
- Def Stan 00-27 Issue 3, Measurement of Impulse Noise from Military Weapons, Explosives and Pyrotechnics (MWEP) and Selection of Hearing Protection.
An Adobe pdf presentation on ALARP. This discusses in general terms the journey to declaring a risk ALARP from initial hazard identification, discussion of risk management and the legal definition and requirements for ALARP with practical guidance.
The hypothesis underlying the new model, called STAMP (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes) is that system theory is a useful way to analyze accidents, particularly system accidents. In this conception of safety, accidents occur when external disturbances, component failures, or dysfunctional interactions among system components are not adequately handled by the control system, that is, they result from inadequate control or enforcement of safety-related constraints on the development, design, and operation of the system.
Safety then can be viewed as a control problem, and safety is managed by a control structure embedded in an adaptive socio-technical system. The goal of the control structure is to enforce constraints on system development (including both the development process itself and the resulting system design) and on system operation that result in safe behavior. In this framework, understanding why an accident occurred requires determining why the control structure was ineffective. Preventing future accidents requires designing a control structure that will enforce the necessary constraints.
A New Accident Model for Engineering Safer Systems1 authored by Aeronuatics and Astronautics Professor Nancy Leveson at Massachusetts Institute of Technology details what is becoming an important method for viewing accidents that moves away from the standard event driven view. Further details and case studies may be found at ther home page: http://sunnyday.mit.edu/
1. [This paper appeared in Safety Science, Vol. 42, No. 4, April 2004, pp. 237-270.]
Throughout ASEMS the reader is encouraged to apply a proportionate approach to the procedures followed. It does not neccesarily mean ommitting content but rather provides the user a degree of flexibility in the degree a procedure is applied (is an ISA required for this project, does this require a simple statement for evidence rather than a complete document? for example).
The linked Proportionality document has been created as a starting point for further development and incorporation of detailed guidance on utilising a proportional approach. Whilst this is a work in progress you may find it informative.
There are c=ircumstances where ASEMS may conflict with or be duplicated by regulations issued by the Defence Safety Authority (DSA). Currently the DSA issues regulation for each of the domains. These regulations will be standardised over time whenever possible and any duplications or conflict will be resolved. Until that point we will try to provide some pointers as to where this may occur.
Documents will be published in this area as and when they are identified.
The following indicates where ASEMS requirements may potentially be duplicated by regulation issued by the MAA. Project Teams and Safety Managers should consider checking on the references to determine the correct course of action
A user guide written by MOD staff describing the process for setting up a hazard log in the eCassandra and desktop Cassandra tools.